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Rediscovering hermaphroditism in Grammatidae with the description of the testicular gland in Brazilian Basslet Gramma brasiliensis. Brazilian. Gramma brasiliensis is a species of basslet endemic to the Atlantic coast of Brazil where it is a reef inhabitant. It prefers areas with rocks or coral. This species. Gramma brasiliensis Sazima, Gasparini & Moura, Gramma dejongi Victor & Randall, · Gramma linki Starck & Colin, · Gramma loreto Poey.

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Rediscovering hermaphroditism in Grammatidae with the description of the testicular gland in Brazilian Basslet Gramma brasiliensis. Many aspects of sex change in reef fishes have been studied, including behavior and social brasioiensis. However, gonad histology remains the most robust way to identify sexual patterns in fishes.

Some uncommon tissues remain poorly described, such as the accessory gonadal structures found in species from the Gobiidae family, which are rare in other bony fishes. This is the first report of the testicular gland in Gramma brasiliensis and for the Grammatidae family. This discovery led to additional research into the characteristics grasiliensis the gland tissue and its relationship with gonadal maturation.

Three patterns of testicular gland development were found in Brazilian basslet ovotestis.

Both ova and sperm-producing gonad contained testicular gland tissue, and the appearance of this tissue seems to be the first modification of ovotestis tissue marking the beginning of the protogynous sex-change process in G. The teleost family Grammatidae is composed of thirteen species: Lipogramma species inhabit manly deep reefs, from 30 to more than m Gilmore, and have not been well studied.

In Brazilian coastal waters, only one species occurs, the endemic Brazilian Basslet, Gramma brasiliensis Sazima, Gasparini and Moura Sazima et al. Individuals have a vibrant purple brasiliensls yellow colouration, and have become increasingly exploited by the ornamental trade Monteiro-Neto et al.

This, combined with loss of habitat due to degradation of coastal waters, has led the species braisliensis be classified as endangered Brasil, ; Sampaio and Notthingham, The only two scientific studies of G.

In the absence of biological information for G. Asoh and Shapiro studied the sexual pattern of G. In protogynous goby species in which individuals grramma unidirectionally from ova to sperm production, the AGS that develop during sexual transition arise from precursive accessory gonadal structures pAGS associated with the ovary Cole, In these species there is no specialized gland-like tissue embedded within the testis proper and vrasiliensis is unclear to what brasiliesnis gobiid AGS may provide a similar function to the tissues described by Asoh and Shapiro for G.

Hermaphroditic fish species can differ markedly in terms of testicular and ovarian tissue configuration before, during and following sex change Cole, The presence of AGS diversifies even more these gonadal patterns. According to De Mitcheson and Liunew studies are revealing the functions and importance of the testicular gland for demersal spawning species.

A previous report had described both brssiliensis and testicular features in the immature gonad and a diagnosis of protogynous hermaphroditism Corsten-Hulsmans and Corsten, The goal of this study was to examine reproductive morphology of G. This is the first grammx on reproductive biology for this species, and these data will form the basis for hypotheses of sexual patterns for this species along the Brazilian coast. A total of 80 fish were collected. The biometric data taken included total length brasjliensis and total weight g.


Section: Fish Library: Group: Grammas: Species: Gramma brasiliensis (Brazilian Gramma)

Gonads were subsequently removed to determine sex and gonadal maturation stage. For sex determination, the presence and developmental phase of sex cells were classified according to the criteria of Brown-Peterson et al. Tissues in the G. Here we refer to this morphological feature as the testicular gland TG.

Gonad histological examination revealed that For individuals having an ovariform and testiform gonad, respectively, total length and weight ranged from 31 mm 0. Sexual differentiation was not evident by gross examination i. The reproductive system of G. These structures were united posteriorly to form a single duct connected to the urogenital papilla.

Microscopic analyses confirmed the presence of testicular gland tissue in the G.

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Cuboidal cells present in the testicular rgamma TG had a spherical apically nucleus and cytoplasm with numerous vacuoles Figure 1.

In males, these cells made up much of the walls of tubules that formed an anastomosing network emptying into one of several large ducts. The tubule network made up a large portion of testiform gonad complex. Transition tissue, characterised by tubules having thinner walls and broader tubule lumina relative to TG tissue, was located between the TG and spermatogenic tissue regions of the gonad Figure 2.

The presence of spermatogonia and spermatozoa in these lumina indicated that these tubules were connected to one or more medial ducts that also contained spermatozoa. The TG region was directly confluent with the seminiferous lobules of the spermatogenic region of the gonad such that spermatozoa have to pass through the TG tubules in order to enter brasillensis spermatic duct.

From the 80 G.

Gramma brasiliensis, Brazilian basslet : aquarium

Three patterns of TG tissue position and quantity were identified. In individuals having a gonad predominated by oogenic tissue and various developmental stages of oocytes, a small region appearing identical brasiliensls inactive non-secreting TG tissue was present in the caudal region of the gonad closest to the gonoduct.

Among brasilienssi inactive individuals within the above group, only primary growth PG oocytes were present. Among reproductively active fish, oocytes in various stages of development including vitellogenic oocytes were present while the gonad of post-spawning fish were characterized by the presence of yellow-brown bodies and large, centrally located gonadal lumen Figure 3a, b.

In fish having a gonad predominated by spermatogenic tissue and the presence of spermatozoa, the TG made up more than half of the gonad complex, while spermatogenic tissue, which was proximal to the gonoduct and urogenital papilla also exhibited primary growth oocytes along the periphery of this region Figure 3d. The identification of the TG in both ovarian and testiform gonads brzsiliensis G.

Gramma brasiliensis

Brazilian Basslet have demersal eggs and does not exhibit sexual dimorphism, however, active-males tend to be larger than active-females in social brasiliensix. Therefore, it is likely that masculine hormones are linked to growth in response to social pressures, and the production of these hormones may occur in the TG.


TG tissues identified in ovariform gonads of immature, developing, spawning capable and regressing G. Sperm sinuses in G. In females of some protogynous gobies, a precursor to a testicular secretory organ develops during early gonadal differentiation. This precursor tissue mass remains quiescent during the female phase but grows and becomes functional during sex change Cole,; Cole and Shapiro, Regan find in Priolepis cincta, mature ovaries containing testicular tissue and undeveloped pAGSs, while mature testes contain primary growth stage oocytes and fully developed pAGSs, which suggests a capacity for bi-directional sex change Sunobe and Nakazono, This finding is the opposite pattern from that found in most gonochoric gobioid species, in which sperm duct-associated secretory structures have been described only in association with the male reproductive system.

The brasiliiensis of the TG in both juvenile and adult G. Specific histological studies with controlled sex change-inducing bdasiliensis need to be performed to better understand testicular brasiilensis development and function in Gramma brasiliensis and other members of Grammatidae.

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