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La entrevista motivacional como herramienta para el fomento de cambios en el estilo de vida de personas con enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles sergio. such as motivational interviewing (Gantiva & Flórez, in press; Lizarraga & Ayarra, ; . Entrevista motivacional en consumidores excesivos de alcohol: . Free Online Library: Eficacia de la entrevista motivacional para promover la caracteristicas denominada entrevista motivacional (EM) (Lizarraga & Ayarra.

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Following Lazarus and Folkman bin this paper we adopt the viewpoint developed by Hans Selye Bensabat, ; Selye, regarding the evolution of the General Adaptation Syndrome to describe the impact of the duration of lizarraya event and its evolution throughout the stages of alarm, resistance, and exhaustion, an approach that will be addressed again later. The type of CS that is addressed in this paper is defined by the presence of some harmful event entrevizta the person perceives as highly damaging or as threatening to produce a lot of damage, signals that something really serious has occurred and that something else might happen in an imminent way.

Nevertheless, their integration as an explanatory model of crises is relatively new and requires the development of empirical studies verifying it; the novelty of the model is of a great interest regarding the addressing of a crisis in a normal stage of its development, when it has not yet assumed pathological manifestations and as a field of application of BMI.

This concept has been used in the psychological literature particularly to refer to the parallel action of emotional and instrumental coping processes in a harmful situation, which determine the simultaneous presence of a pain-control process and a harm-control process.

A favorable consequence of this high extent of commitment and responsibility is that it also leads the person to actively lizarragx the threat and to maintain the effort during coping, a central, motivational aspect favoring the impact of an intervention, regardless of how brief it is. The CS requires the person to implement coping strategies entrevita on the management of objective damage, as well as on the search for emotional relief, motivaciona, consideration that gives rise to the name of lizarragw parallel processing in CS DPP-CS.

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Four different aspects in the analysis of secondary appraisal need to be differentiated, which have been the subject of study within cognitive theories of expectancy-value and social learning: These authors characterize such factors in the following terms:.

Four different aspects in the analysis of secondary appraisal need to be differentiated, which have been the subject of study within cognitive theories of expectancy-value and social learning:. Emotional Experience during the Crisis In this section, we will analyze a fundamental aspect of a CSunderstood as a state of great psycho-biological alteration, in which emotional experience plays an intermediate role, which follows cognitive appraisal and antecedes coping in a cyclic process directed by successive reappraisals.

Nevertheless, this preeminence of the self-efficacy expectation is questionable, particularly in the case of behaviors approximating a superordinate goal in which a logical coherence between reinforcement expectation and outcome expectation must be anticipated. Avances de la Disciplina6 1, in January, Some factors, both personal and situational, influence the determination of the development of primary and secondary appraisal, and also of reappraisal; among the personal factors, Lazarus and Folkman b have proposed commitment and beliefs; among situational factors, novelty, predictability, and event incertitude, as well as temporal factors, are particularly important.

Likewise, these empirical studies imply the development of systematic experiences of proactive modification of what has occurred in a CSin order to verify the predictions that can be made regarding treatment, whose characterization is made by way of BMI in CSwhich includes essential procedures of cognitive restructuring such as Socratic dialogue, of decision-making, as motivational interviewing, and of self-control of actions.


These two aspects are especially important because of their implications about the elements that should be emphasized when implementing an intervention in CS. Just as an appraisal made during this period might lead to reducing the expectations of severity, it can also increase them, and just as it might lead to improving the efficacy expectations it can also worsen them. In this sense, the clarity of the solution has to lead to the double effect of increasing the confidence in the possibility of controlling harm or pain, and increasing individual confidence in the probability of effectively exerting such control.

Emotional coping, by way of the process of pain control, is essential in CS s given that, frequently, generated harms constitute irreversible losses, in the face of which any instrumental attempt of change is of little help. This distinction between reinforcement expectations and outcome expectations acquires additional importance in a CSin that a critical happening significantly alters the valence of a particular outcome, which in turn alters the significance a person will attribute to the relations between reinforcement and outcome.

This occurs when transforming the objective perception of the pain generated by the damage -which allows for options of personal management with or without therapeutic support- changing it into a subjective perception of intense suffering. Science, Confusion in the decision-making process for coping with the CS generating event, as a natural consequence of the above mentioned alterations. Fear control is conceptualized as a course of defensive ehtrevista that is initiated when the severity of harm has a minimum value from which a defensive motivation is produced.

In the theoretical frame of protection motivation Rogers,this secondary appraisal process is called coping appraisal. This feedback assumes a more evident and objective manifestation, no longer anticipatory, when a consequence of adaptation is produced which has retroactive implications by way of reappraisal loops which modify the original primary and secondary appraisals.

An important fact is that a critical event modifies the sensitivity of the person to other facts which, without the presence of a CSmight have a completely different meaning. A chronic emotional pain quite similar to chronic physical pain, which allows an illustration of our previous assertion, is the so-called “nostalgia” Paniagua,where the evocation of memories and the expression of longings constitute the elements of cognitive appraisal contributing to the increase of pain, but also in which the challenge of living more in terms of the present rather than of the past corresponds to an adaptive lizarrga for the person.

Animal models and human cognitive psychophysiology. Level 1 describes automatic thoughts and cognitive distortions, which are cognitive-type products that are more accessible for the explanation of a disorder. By the same token, it makes more sense to argue that the recurrence of the emotional experience of fear favors the filtering through a signification of harm that leads the person to hopelessness and depression than to propose that the fear stage is followed by the depression stage in the adaptive cycle.

Personal beliefs that situations can be modified as a result of personal actions or that, on the contrary, they are entrevksta to determination by external forces escaping the control exerted by oneself; this factor is what Rotter, calls locus of control.

Dual Parallel Process in Crisis Situations: Motivational Foundation

Fear as motivator fear as inhibitor: Confusion in understanding the causes that led to the event generating the CS. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology48, In a CSthe triggering event has already occurred and, for this reason, temporal incertitude might be more related to the threat of new events, as in the case of an earthquake which might be followed by aftershocks.


An integrated expectancy model. The complementary aspect of BMI is the planning of personal self-control to secure the execution of the coping actions the person will entrevita to implement. In any CS the probability that the available information will generate incertitude in the person increases; in such a case, the role of situational ambiguity is mediated by subjective interpretations, with which the function of personal beliefs becomes more significant in the determination of the course that coping will take.

THE AIM of this paper is to characterize a crisis situation CS as a psychobiological state of a person in which motivational alteration is prominent due to the impact of a deep alteration of an emotional sort originated in some external event of a harmful nature.

At an extreme at which emotional pain absence of relief and lack kizarraga clarity regarding the possibilities to cope with harm are predominant, a CS can lead the person along a path of extreme autonomic arousal where decisions can deliberately assume a path of self-destruction, further entrefista in both cases to an emergency situation within the CSor in a more general way, the person’s situation can negatively evolve assuming characteristics proper of an anxiety disorder or an affective lizqrraga Barlow, Level 3 is formed by ideological-conceptual, evaluative, higher motivational, and constructive schemata.

Imminence corresponds to the time elapsing during the anticipatory appraisal before the foreseen event will occur. The incertitude-ambiguity dynamics and its influence on motivaciomal. A CS is a state of great psychobiological alteration, of varying duration and stages, subsequent to the reception of a signal announcing the event of a significant loss and the danger of a deepening of the harm that has occurred.

Among these changes, we emphasize the following:. What specific harm should be controlled in the crisis generated by the death of a loved entrevistx These questions have answers that are motivaciinal always clear or which do not refer to real conditions; cognitive biases and heuristics, illusions of control, and cognitive distortions -all of motivacionao processes playing a more relevant role in situations of incertitude- might lead to very different routes of appraisal and decision -more or less rational- with an increase in the probability of making mistakes in the decision-making process.

General and Applied80 1, Pt. In this case, both the nature of distress and that of the possible warning stimuli are more difficult to establish than in the case lzarraga what happens in the example of economic loss, entrebista in this case we are dealing with internal events such as thoughts, waking up, physical sensations, and feelings.

Journal of Affective Disorders61 Some examples of clear intentions in a CS can be those of surviving, handling the pain, living without suffering, living in austerity, enduring dearth, doing something almost unacceptable, and so on. The developed model has been labeled dual parallel process in crisis situations DPP-CSand three main theoretical and methodological sources were adopted for its design, as entrevlsta developed in the study of thematic fields akin to that of crisis: Differently to what happens with a warning message representing a threat and generating a basic emotion of fear or anxiety, in a CS the reality of harm is not a hypothetical event that might occur in the motivacionao unless the person adopts an avoidance behavior, but a harmful, objective, very aversive event that is currently occurring and can become more profound in the immediate future, producing a quite complex emotional state of a negative sort.

It is at this moment that an avoidance response e.