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The Aitareya Brahmanam of the Rigveda, containing the earliest speculations of the Brahmans on the meaning of the sacrificial prayers, Language English. Aitareya Brahmana belongs to Shakala Shakha of the Rigveda. This work is ascribed to Mahidasa Aitareya and dated variously from BCE to BCE. Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the public and we .

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The Aitareya Brahmana Sanskrit: This work, according to the tradition, is ascribed to Mahidasa Aitareya. Sayana of Vijayanagaraa 14th century commentator, attributes the entire Aitareya Brahmana to a single man: She was one of aitafeya wives of a great rishi sage. The rishi preferred sons from his other wives over Mahidasa. Once he placed all his other sons on his lap, but ignored Mahidasa. But none of these works mention Sayana’s legend. According to AB Keith, the present redaction of the work may be ascribed to Mahidasa, but even that cannot be said conclusively.

The Asvalayana Srautasutra and Asvalayana Grhyasutraattributed to the sage Asvalayana, are the srautasutra and grhyasutra associated with the Aitareya Brahmana.

For example, Raghunandana c.

The verse is a slight variation of an Aitaerya Brahmana verse. The common view is that the Asvalayana Brahmana is simply another name for the Aitareya Brahmana. However, according to another theory, it might be a now-lost, similar but distinct Brahmana text. The following is an overview of its contents:. Astronomy played a significant role in Vedic rituals, which were conducted at different periods of a year.

The Aitareya Brahmana 4.

Aitareya Brahmana – WikiVividly

The vishuvant is mentioned as an important day for rituals. The Aitareya Brahmana 2. The [sun] never really sets or rises. In that they think of bramhana ‘He hrahmana setting,’ having reached the end of the day, he inverts himself; thus he makes evening below, day above.

Again in that they think of him ‘He is aigareya in the aiyareya having reached the end of the night he inverts himself; thus he makes day below, night above. He never sets; indeed he never sets. According to Subhash Kakthis implies that according to the author of the verse, the sun does not move and it is the earth that moves, suggesting heliocentrism and rotation of a spherical Earth. Das Gupta adds that the text’s interest in the sun’s position appears to be “purely ritualistic”, and the verse cannot be conclusively taken as an evidence of the author’s recognition of the earth as a sphere.

Chattopadhyaya, the verse simply implies that the sun has two sides: The sun does never rise or set.

When people think the sun is setting it is not so. For after having arrived at the end of the day it makes itself produce two opposite effects, making night to what is below and day to englisg is on the other side. When they believe it rises in the morning this supposed rising is thus to be explained for. Having reached the end of the night, it makes itself produce two opposite effects, making night to what is below and day to what is brahnana the other side.

Aitareya Brahmana being a Vedic corpus text and scripture in Hinduism, and the lack of any Mount Meru theories in that text, the medieval era commentators such as Sayana had significant difficulty in reconciling the Vedic era and medieval era cosmographic theories. It was established in by Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I of Sangama Dynasty, the empire rose to prominence as a culmination of attempts by the southern powers to ward off Islamic invasions by the end of the 13th century.

It lasted untilalthough its power declined after a military defeat in by the Deccan sultanates. The empire is named after its city of Vijayanagara, whose ruins surround present day Hampi, now a World Heritage Site in Karnataka.

The empires legacy includes many monuments spread over South India, the best known of which is the group at Hampi, the previous temple building traditions in South India came together in the Vijayanagara Architecture style.

The mingling of all faiths and vernaculars inspired architectural innovation of Hindu temple construction, first in the Deccan, efficient administration and vigorous overseas trade brought new technologies such as water management systems for irrigation. The empires patronage enabled fine arts and literature to new heights in Kannada, Telugu, Tamil.

The Vijayanagara Empire created an epoch in South Indian history that transcended regionalism by promoting Hinduism as a unifying factor, differing theories have been proposed regarding the origins of the Vijayanagara empire. Others claim that they were Telugu people, first associated with the Kakatiya Kingdom, irrespective of their origin, historians agree the founders were supported aitareja inspired by Vidyaranya, a saint at the Sringeri monastery to fight the Muslim invasion of South India.

He created the Kampili kingdom, but this was a short lived kingdom during this period of wars, Kampili existed near Gulbarga and Tungabhadra river in northeastern parts of the present-day Karnataka state. It ended after a defeat by the armies of Delhi Sultanate, the triumphant army led by Malik Zada sent the news of its victory, over Kampili kingdom, to Muhammad bin Tughluq in Delhi by aitarega a straw-stuffed severed head of the dead Hindu king.


In braahmana first two decades after the founding of the empire, Harihara I gained control over most of the south of the Tungabhadra river. The original capital was in the principality of Aitareyz on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in todays Karnataka. The next ruler, Deva Raya I, emerged successful against the Gajapatis of Odisha, italian traveler Niccolo de Conti wrote of him as the most powerful ruler of India. Deva Raya Brhmana succeeded to the throne in and was possibly the most capable of the Sangama dynasty rulers and he quelled rebelling feudal lords as well as the Zamorin of Calicut and Quilon in the south.

He invaded the island of Lanka and became overlord of the kings of Burma at Pegu, the Sultanate invaded Vijayanagara in when the latter defaulted in paying the tribute.

Indra — Indra is a Vedic deity in Hinduism, a guardian deity in Buddhism, and the king of first heaven called Saudharmakalpa in Jainism.

His mythologies and powers are similar, though not identical to those of the Indo-European deities such as Zeus, Jupiter, Perun, Thor, in the Vedas, Indra is the king of Svarga and the Devas.

He is the god of lightning, thunder, storms, rains, Indra is the most referred to deity in the Rigveda. He is celebrated for his powers, and the one who kills the great symbolic evil named Vritra who obstructs human prosperity, Indra destroys Vritra and his deceiving forces, and thereby brings rains and the sunshine as the friend of mankind. In Buddhism, Indra has been a popular deity, referred by many names and he is featured in Buddhism somewhat differently than Hinduism, such as being shown as less war oriented and one paying homage to the Buddha.

Indra rules over the much sought Devas realm of rebirth within the Samsara doctrine of Buddhist traditions, however, dnglish the Hindu texts, Indra also is a subject of ridicule and reduced to a figurehead status in Buddhist texts, shown as a god that suffers rebirth and redeath.

Rigveda Brahmanas: the Aitareya and Kausītaki Brāhmanas of the Rigveda

In the Jainism traditions, like Buddhism and Hinduism, Indra is the king of gods, Indras iconography shows him wielding a lightning thunderbolt known as Vajra, riding on a white elephant known as Airavata. In Buddhist iconography the elephant sometimes features three heads, while Jaina icons sometimes show the elephant with five heads, sometimes a single elephant is shown with four symbolic tusks. Indras heavenly home is on or near Mount Meru, the etymological roots of Indra are unclear, has been a contested topic among scholars since the 19th-century, one with many proposals.

The significant proposals have been, root ind-u, or rain drop, based on the Vedic mythology that he conquered rain, root ind, or equipped with great power. Root idh or kindle, and ina or strong, root indha, or igniter, for his ability to bring light and power that ignites the vital forces of life. This is based on Shatapatha Brahmana, root idam-dra, or It seeing which is a reference to the one who first perceived the self-sufficient metaphysical Brahman.

Later scholarship has linked Vedic Indra to the European Aynar, Abaza, Ubykh, colarusso suggests a Pontic origin and that both the phonology and the context of Indra in Indian religions is best explained from Indo-Aryan roots and a Circassian etymology. Indra is of ancient but unclear origin, the similarities between Indra of Hindu mythologies and of Thor of Nordic and Germanic mythologies are significant states Max Muller. Indra as a deity had a presence in northeastern Asia minor and this tablet mentions a treaty, but its significance is in four names it includes reverentially as Mi-it-ra, U-ru-w-na, In-da-ra and Na-sa-at-ti-ia.

Varuna — Varuna is the Hindu god of water and the celestial ocean, as well as a god of law of the underwater world.

His consort is the Hindu goddess Varuni, originally the chief god of the Vedic pantheon, Varuna was replaced by Indra and later faded away with the ascendancy of Shiva and Vishnu. Varuna is also twinned with Indra in the Rigveda, as Indra-Varuna, the Rigveda and Atharvaveda portrays Varuna as omniscient, catching liars in his snares. Both Mitra and Varuna are classified as Asuras in the Rigveda, Varuna, being the king of the Asuras, was adopted or made the change to a Deva after the structuring of the primordial cosmos, imposed by Indra after he defeats Vrtra.

Varuna does not respond, and Rama arises on the fourth morning, with his bow and arrow, he angrily begins attacking the oceans with celestial weapons—burning up the waters and killing its life and creatures. The Vanaras are dazzled and fearful at witnessing the enraged Rama demolish the oceans, just as Rama invokes the brahmastra, considered the most powerful weapon capable of destroying all creation, Varuna arises out of the oceans.

He bows to Rama, explaining that he himself was at a loss to answer Ramas question, begging him not to destroy the oceans with the missile, he suggests that Rama re-direct the weapon at a demonic race that lives in the heart of the ocean. Ramas arrows destroys the demons, and establishes a purer, liberated environment there, Varuna promises that he would keep the oceans still for all of Ramas army to pass, and Nala constructs a bridge across to Lanka.


Rama justifies his angry assault on the oceans as he followed the process of petitioning and worshipping Varuna. Also unrelated to Vedic Varuna are Avestan Vourukasha and Varena, the former is the Avestas mythological sea that covers the earth, while Varena is a mythological four-cornered fourteenth region of the world. Heliocentrism — Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.

Historically, Heliocentrism was opposed to geocentrism, which placed the Earth at the center, in the following century, Johannes Kepler elaborated upon and expanded this model to include elliptical orbits, and Galileo Galilei presented supporting observations made using a telescope. With the observations of William Herschel, Friedrich Bessel, and others, astronomers realized that the sun, the Ptolemaic system was a sophisticated astronomical system that managed to calculate the positions for the planets to a fair degree of accuracy.

However, he rejected the idea of a spinning earth as absurd as he believed it would create huge winds and his planetary hypotheses were sufficiently real that the distances of moon, sun, planets and stars could be determined by treating orbits celestial spheres as contiguous realities. This system postulated the existence of a counter-earth collinear with the Earth and central fire, the Sun revolved around the central fire once a year, and the stars were stationary.

The Earth maintained the same face towards the central fire. Kepler gave an explanation of the Pythagoreans central fire as the Sun. Heraclides of Pontus said that the rotation of the Earth explained the apparent daily motion of the celestial sphere and it used to be thought that he believed Mercury and Venus to revolve around the Sun, which in turn revolves around the Earth.

Macrobius Ambrosius Theodosius later described this as the Egyptian System, stating that it did not escape the skill of the Egyptians, the first person known to have proposed a heliocentric system, however, was Aristarchus of Samos. Like Eratosthenes, Aristarchus calculated the size of the Earth, and measured the size and distance of the Moon and Sun, from his estimates, he concluded that the Sun was six to seven times wider than the Earth and thus hundreds of times more voluminous.

His writings on the system are lost, but some information is known from surviving descriptions and critical commentary by his contemporaries. This is the account as you have heard from astronomers. The stars are in fact much farther away than the distance that was assumed in ancient times. Archimedes says that Aristarchus made the stars distance larger, suggesting that he was answering the natural objection that Heliocentrism requires stellar parallactic oscillations and he apparently agreed to the point but placed the stars so distant as to make the parallactic motion invisibly minuscule.

Thus Heliocentrism opened the way for realization that the universe was larger than the geocentrists taught, according to one of Plutarchs characters in the dialogue, the philosopher Cleanthes had held that Aristarchus should be charged with impiety for moving the hearth of the world.

Since Beahmana mentions the followers of Aristarchus in passing, it is likely there were other astronomers in the Classical period who also espoused Heliocentrism. Seleucus adopted the system of Aristarchus and is said to have proved the heliocentric theory. He may have used trigonometric methods that were available in his time. In The Histories, written — BC, Herodotus cast doubt on a report of the sun observed shining from the north and he stated that the phenomenon was observed during a circumnavigation of Africa aitaryea by Phoenician explorers employed by Egyptian pharaoh Necho II c.

The Old Testament Book of Isaiah states, It is he that sits upon the circle of the earth and it is not clear whether the passage refers to the planet as a sphere or whether aitareha describes a flat circular earth. According to Diogenes Laertius, Pythagoras was the first Greek who called the Earth round, though Theophrastus attributes this to Parmenides, Pythagoras Early Greek philosophers alluded to a spherical Earth, though with some ambiguity.

Pythagoras was among those said to have originated the idea, after the 5th century BC, no Greek writer brahmanz repute thought the world was anything but round. Plato Plato travelled to southern Italy to study Pythagorean mathematics, when he returned to Athens and established his school, Plato also taught his students that Earth was a sphere though he offered no justifications. My conviction is that the Earth is a body in the centre of the heavens. Aristotle Aristotle was Platos prize student and the mind of the school, Aristotle observed there are stars seen in Egypt and Cyprus which are not seen in the northerly regions.


Since this could happen on a curved surface, he too believed Earth was a sphere of no great size. Travelers going aitreya see southern constellations rise higher above the horizon, the concepts of symmetry, equilibrium and cyclic repetition permeated Aristotles work. Southern pole, both impenetrable and girdled with ice, although no humans could survive in the frigid zones, inhabitants in the southern temperate regions could exist.